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In this article, we will be learning how the covid-19 impacted india's overall production and disturb the supply chain.

After the India’s lockdown in March put the summer shrimp season in no direction, researchers estimate that the shrimp industry could face a $2.3 billion loss for 2020-2021 however the government safeguards and improved labour retention could keep firms afloat for the winter season.

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The coronavirus pandemic has adversely impacted aquaculture production across the globe. The economic fallout from nationwide stay-at-home orders and slowed export flows affected all segments of the aquaculture value chain. For inland shrimp, lockdowns and closed food services have been catastrophic, especially in India. According to a paper published in Aquaculture, researchers with India’s Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) estimate that the sector will face a $2.3 billion loss for 2020-2021 due to the pandemic.

After conducting multiple surveys and interviews with key stakeholders, the research team at CIBA mapped the pandemic’s economic shocks to the farmed shrimp sector. The study found that Covid-19 outbreaks and restrictions negatively impacted each link of the industry’s supply chain. Shrimp hatcheries, farms, processors, retailers and exporters lost an estimated 40 to 60 percent of their business in the wake of India’s lockdown.

India’s coronavirus outbreak and the shrimp sector

At the end of September 2020, India has confirmed more than 6.22 million positive cases of Covid-19 and recorded more than 97,000 deaths. Its lockdown, which began on 25 March, included movement restrictions and mothballed multiple sectors of the economy. Most of India’s workforce had to stay at home for the duration of lockdown. Though it is currently undergoing a phased reopening, the economic impacts of the stay-at-home orders caused a multi-faceted shock to India’s food value chain that is still ongoing.

India is the world’s third largest shrimp producer and the industry brings in an estimated $5 billion of foreign exchange earnings every year. The country exports 95 percent of its shrimp, with the United States, European Union, China and Japan receiving most of the shipments. Economists estimate that the sector employs 1.2 million people across the value chain – from farming, processing, retailing and exporting.

For India’s shrimp farmers, the lockdown was announced at the beginning of its summer farming season (between March and July). This period usually yields 60 percent of India’s annual shrimp production, with the winter crop (between August and December) making up the remainder.

Inter-state and intra-state movement are key to India’s shrimp sector. Farming, processing, feed production and research activities are concentrated in different regions. The industry’s structure meant that lockdown restrictions left it vulnerable to labour shortages and market shocks. To say the sector was unprepared for Covid-19 is an understatement.

Value chain analysis: from seed to export

Seed production and supply

The biggest impact on shrimp hatcheries came from manpower shortages – especially for skilled technicians. Though many sectors across India complained of reduced labour availability between March and June of this year, agriculture and aquaculture are particularly vulnerable to labour squeezes. Shrimp production cycles are inflexible and time-dependent. A sudden dearth of skilled labour meant that hatcheries struggled to fulfil their demands.

A second-order impact of the lockdown was seen in the precipitous drop of consumer and export demand for shrimp. Since hatchery owners couldn’t be sure there would be future buyers for shrimp larvae, holding on to unsold post-larval shrimp meant taking a steep loss. The researchers reported that most shrimp hatcheries discarded their available seed stock due to economic uncertainty.

An additional constraint for shrimp hatcheries is their dependence on specific pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock. Like most international cargo, imports of SPF broodstock were temporarily suspended during lockdown. Hatchery operators told the researchers that India’s existing broodstock supply couldn’t meet their needs – they typically make up the shortfall with imports.

This caused a stoppage at the first link in the shrimp aquaculture value chain. The subsequent weakness caused a ripple effect through the rest of the sector.

Lockdown’s impact on shrimp farmers and shrimp farming

India’s lockdown came into force at the end of the first month of the summer season. Researchers found that 27 percent of farmers who had prepared shrimp ponds for stocking didn’t finish the three-phase production cycle. When speaking to farmers, the researchers noted that producers had difficulty obtaining production inputs like feed and seed and demand for finished shrimp was unpredictable.

25 percent of farms were in phase one (less than 30 days into the culture period) when lockdown began. 34 percent were in phase two (their shrimp had had between 30 and 80 days of growth) and 14 percent were in phase three (in which their shrimp had spent more than 80 days in the pond environment). Farms in phase three told researchers that they were able to make a small profit or break even, but others weren’t as lucky. Some producers reported “panic harvesting” small shrimp to sell at a discount to avoid bigger losses in the future.

However, these “distress sales” weren’t always effective: producers couldn’t access insulated trucks or labour to harvest and transport the shrimp. Even when a contract was agreed, movement restrictions meant that producers couldn’t access processors or market their goods. Many farmers were forced to take a loss for the summer crop.

Farmers listed closed diagnostic labs as an additional challenge during lockdown. Farmers often rely on these labs to monitor water quality and shrimp health during the production cycle. Losing access to that data and monitoring capacity meant that farmers couldn’t easily manage their water quality or identify disease outbreaks during the culture period Like hatchery operators, farmers had difficulty recruiting and retaining labourers during lockdown. Official movement restrictions and farmers’ inability to guarantee wages or job security caused a severe labour shortage. Production slowed as a result.

Processing and marketing

Seafood processors told researchers that manpower shortages were their primary constraint. Migrant workers – who make up the bulk of India’s skilled labourers at processing plants – returned home during lockdown. This not only slowed processing times, but also decreased shrimp quality after they were processed. Requirements for social distancing and securing personal protective equipment (PPE) for labourers were further challenges for seafood processors.

Many of the other constraints facing processors were knock-on effects from the first two links in the shrimp value chain. Some processors told the research team that many shrimp orders weren’t large enough to justify running the processing equipment. The fact that many farmers “panic harvested” shrimp that were too small to be mechanically processed compounded the issue.

Processors also said that the sudden nosedive in export orders put a strain on India’s cold storage facilities. Unsold inventory began accumulating in key ports as buyers for Indian shrimp closed their food service sectors. Further procurement couldn’t take place.

Though researchers noted that the state government of Andhra Pradesh enacted a minimum procurement price for difference sizes of harvested shrimps to stabilise the market, study participants said the policy wasn’t strictly enforced. Processors often refused to pay the fixed prices, telling farmers that the shrimp was poor quality.

The estimated impact of Covid-19

The researchers estimate that pandemic-related disruptions caused a 30 to 40 percent drop in each component of the shrimp aquaculture value chain. In economic terms, this could amount to $1.5 billion loss for 2020. The biggest decline was attributed to shrimp exports – projected export volumes for 2020 are almost 40 percent lower than they were in 2019. The decline in exports is putting pressure on shrimp prices – researchers expect a 35 percent reduction before 2021.

India’s shrimp sector has increased production by an average of 21 percent a year over the last decade. And if this trend was to continue then production was on track to reach between 900,000 and 1 million tonnes during 2020, according to Shetty. However, the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic made a 20 percent reduction on the 800,000 tonnes harvested in 2019 more likely, with experts now predicting an annual harvest closer to 680,000 tonnes for the year.

Rebuilding after the shock

The researchers note that Indian government attempted to mitigate the worst effects of the pandemic. Shortly after locking down, fish farming and processing were categorised as “essential activities”, allowing some businesses to keep operating, even if it was at reduced capacity. Officially designating key points of the aquaculture value chain as “essential” will insulate the industry from the economic shock of lockdowns. However, governments should consider other protections for shrimp aquaculture.

Though initial efforts to set minimum prices for farmed shrimp saw limited success, additional enforcement efforts could turn this into a key protection for shrimp farmers and improve forecasting for processors.

The research team highlighted the Fisheries Development Scheme as a potential way to make the sector more resilient. The programme is part of a five-year blue development initiative that wants to ramp up investment in India’s aquaculture value chain and provide incentives for sustainable fish farming.

If this policy intervention focuses on employment generation as well as economic security for producers, many of the losses stemming from labour shortages could be mitigated. Increasing protections for labourers in the sector would also go a long way to prevent the manpower shortages seen in the first lockdown. If hatchery, farming and processing labour becomes more formal and stable, the businesses will be able to keep workers and potentially stay afloat if a different crisis emerges.

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  • Sommer Christian fev 14, 2018 at 12:48 pm

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In this article, we will be learning about Biomimicry Aqua Shrimp Farming.

Biomimicry is also known as biomimetics is the examination of nature, its models, systems, processes, and elements to emulate or take inspiration from in order to solve human problems. Developing natural live foods in to your aquaculture pond is our motto of our Biomimicry.The term biomimicry and biomimetics come from the Greek words bios meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate. Other terms often used are bionics, bio-inspiration, and biognosis.

Shrimp being the most valuable shellfish resource in terms of trade volume is farmed in large quantities in all South East Asian Countries including India as well as in Latin America. This industry has severely been criticized being the root cause of mangrove destruction and environment deterioration in the coastal areas due to wanton intensification and abuse of chemical and antibiotics along with discharge of untreated effluents. This has affected the shrimp farmers who suffered huge crop losses due to disease prevalence over and over again compelling them to choose a sustainable viewpoint in solidarity with the environment so that they can sustain their production systems on a longer run. Biomimicry is an approach to imitate nature and its methods of problem solving and applying those concepts in betterment of mankind. Such a concept yet novel has been introduced in shrimp farming sector too where the farmers are building copefloc instead of biofloc to stimulate the production of copepods in the system which not only acts as excellent natural food but also acts as an immunostimulant keeping the diseases at bay. This technology being superior in terms of compensation for no artificial feed requirement but production of natural feed with the help of fermented rice and soya products will definitely be the new face of shrimp farming in coming days.

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MAIN “3C”s

• Clean the bottom by removing the sludge by the sludge pump or sun dry

• Check the soil PH of the soil from half feet from the bottom.(WET SOIL /DRY SOIL)

• Check the Ammonia and Nitrite level in the soil.

METHOD OF POND PREPARATION

• Don’t apply disinfectant or treat the water with any other TOXIC chemicals.

• Pump the water to the culture pond through 200-300 micron mesh to avoid other species enter in to the culture ponds.

• Fill the water level up to 2.5 feet

• Based on the soil Ph apply PRO-S like...

• If Soil Ph is below 7.0 apply PRO-S up to 1.0 Lt/ Acer

• If Soil Ph is below 6.0 apply PRO-S up to 2.0 Lt/ Acer

• If Soil Ph is below 5.0 apply PRO –S up to 3.0 Lt/ Acer

• If soil Ph is below 4.0 consult your aquaculture consultant.

• Chain dragging every day morning after application of PRO-S to the pond. Do it every day 1-5. This process should be start 7 days prior to PL seed stocking. Meanwhile at day 3 prepare the FERMRNTED RICE BRAN solution.

Heavily chain dragging for the 3 days continually will improve the pond bottom and will promote the live feed to the newly stocked Pls.

PREPARATION METHOD OF FERMENTED RICE BRAN SOLUTION (FRB)

• Start at Day 3 and apply this FERMENTED RICE BRAN at Day 5 (48 hrs of fermentation is required). Set up the facilities to start fermentations.

• Take 50 -100 kgs of finely grounded Rice bran per Acer. Fill the drum with 500 Lts to 1000 lts of Pond water.

• Add Sodium bi carbonate 10 kgs ( 20 % ) with pond water.

• Add PRO-9 minimum 100 gms to 200 gms to the above mixer and allow the fermentation in open climate without any cover and aeration for the next 48 hrs.

• On day 5 from the PRO S application, apply this FERMENTED RICE BRAN (FRB) and add the additional quantity 150 Gms of PRO 9 to the FRB solution to the pond followed by chain dragging.

• Check the live feed copepods and other zooplankton available.

Give enough aeration to support to the live microbial organism.

• Now Pond is ready to stock. Select the seed from reputed hatchery after WWSV, EHP, IHHNV and Vibrio free seeds. Stock the seed in early Morning after proper aculamadation.

• After seed stocking no need to feed up to 7 days from the seed stocking. Instead of company formulated feed we are going to apply FRB as per mentioned below.

• Take 5-10 kgs of RICE BRAN, sodium bi carbonate 500 gms to 1kg and add 20 Gms of PRO 9 in to ratio 1:10 Lts of pond water or fresh water. Apply this FRB everyday at 9.00 AM REGULARLY TILL THE HARVEST.

WEEKLY POND MANAGEMENT

• EVERY weekly once along with FRB solution add (1)250 Gms of PRO-9 and apply to the Pond.

• After DOC 15 apply (2)PROBITEK B 1.0 Lt per acre/ every weekly once. Better result if we apply after PRO 9 application.

• If we found any excess amount of NO2 or NH3 or H2S or any plankton crash due to D.O fluctuation apply PRO S enough quantity based on available toxic level.

• MAINTAIN D.O @ 6.0 PPM or not Less than

• FEED the shrimp as per check tray monitor result. Don’t over feed the pond. Over feeding will lead to many bacterial infections.

AMINO PEPTIDE SOLUTION PREPARATION METHOD

Take 50 Lts of clean non chlorinated water. De oiled soya cake (Grounded powder) – 10 Kgs Sodium bi carbonate – 1 Kg FEED PRO OR PRO 9 is 20 GMS Ferment the above all in a closed container for 48 hours. Stir well every day two times. It will give more pungent smell.

Add this AP solution 5% to 10% to the pellet feed prior 12 hours before we feed to the shrimp. Keep the pellets in the bags after coated this solution.

The biggest advantage of this system is that this can partially/ totally negate the use of commercial feed in the culture which accounts for ~60-70% of the production cost. For feeding, Fermented Soyabean (FSY) composed of defatted soyabean meal along with some different carbohydrate sources like wheat and rice bran and other probiotics are used. This feed and fertilization using FSY and FRB not only makes the shrimps healthy, improves their appetite, but also obliterates the production of black soil and subsequent deterioration in water quality due to build up toxic metabolites in the system. Also, there is no need to provide aeration in the system unlike biofloc as the target organism is not bacteria but the copepods. A pictorial representation of the entire process is given in Figure 1. Thus, biomimicry based shrimp farming can keep the shrimps healthy, the diseases at bay and pave way for the sustainable shrimp farming. The shrimps produced in such a way are devoid of any harmful residues like chemicals or antibiotics and thereby fetch a premium price in the market. According to some consumers, they even taste better than those produced via using unsustainable means.

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  • Sommer Christian fev 14, 2018 at 12:48 pm

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This article is written by Mr. Thiruppathi Vasagan - Senior Technical Consultant at Candida Bio Science, A brief about him : post graduation in fisheries from renowed university, ample amount of 2 decades shrimp farming experience as a one of the finest aquaculturists in India for all major corporate shrimp farmers made him known as a passionate aquaculturist.

This pandemic year still chases us, inspite we had learned to fight all these struggles and obstacles as we already passed through even tougher problems like EHP, WSSV, White feces syndrome, etc, etc during the past few years. So, we are strong enough to face anything and have to....

Anyway, now our fourth coming new crop is going to begin soon in this January- 2021, let's discuss the positive side of this new crop. Due to this Covid shut down around the world or it is nature's gift, that we don't know, India is blessed with sufficient rain this year. So, all our water sources are effectively charged and those old creeks were well cleaned. One could see healthy and sufficient water source around the country. So, my dear farmer friends, let's make use of this healthy situation and bring out a huge result this year as nature always open a new gate when it closes that old gate. Here i am going to share some of my successful tips to give a correct start to the most successful crop. Because well beginning is half success...

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MAJOR TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL SHRIMP FARMING

• Don't be in hurry during pond preparation, dry ponds completely till crack appears on surface and start plouging deep and deep to overturn soil up snd down and again dry it thoroughly till dust fly on air. It's the right way of drying the ponds which will save our crop from predators and all diseases. .

• Adjust the soil pH by applying burnt lime or agricultural lime or dolomite or gypsum based on your soil pH. As you all aware already, if your previous crop is affected by EHP, apply burnt lime @ 6tons/ Ha in one feet water level and rest the pond for 7 days to get rid of EHP spores and drain the limed water , then fill the ponds with new water.

• Do not compromise in pond preparation at any cost since it is the basement for any successful crop.

• If your water source is from creek, fix mesh filters at different places of inlets to prevent unwanted predators, competitors aquatic animals and it's eggs.

• Apply bleaching powder or chlorine liquids at the rate of 30 ppm to 60 ppm based on water source after 48 hours of water filling, which will ensure complete eradication of the predators and competitors species.

• If it is bore water, those above treatments are not necessary, but, the presence of ammonia and nitrites should be tested and necessary treatment should be taken before stocking like continuous aeration or re-pumping of water from reservoir ponds quite after 48 hours of settlement.

• Ensure minimum of 5 feet water level at every corner of the pond just before you start water culture for stocking which will enhance maximum survival of any livestock like phytoplankton, zooplankton, diatoms and post- larve.

• Water culture should only be started after 5 days of chlorination or 2 days of ammonia or nitrites treatment to ensure proper growth of micro and macro algae in the system.

• Water culture media is nothing but proper mixture and fermentation of carbohydrates, prebiotics and probiotics which is narrated below... Ferment nicely grinded Rice bran 100kg/Ha with Pro 9- (2.5 gms /kg of rice bran) initial booster dose and followed by daily application 1-2 ppmper day.
Along with this juice please apply Probitek B -2.5 lt/ha on weekly basis

• Once after the above procedures are properly executed and the availability of algae, diatoms and the most important zooplanktons like rotifer and copepods are developed and counted, and now your ponds are ready for stocking.

This is upto stocking only my dear friends, I'll discuss about the rest at regular intervals and please don't hesitate to ask any questions regarding the above at anytime.

Meeting you soon..

Thirupathi Vasagan

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  • Sommer Christian fev 14, 2018 at 12:48 pm

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In this article, I will be talking about a standarized method of selecting PLs (shrimp).

A critical stage in shrimp farming cycle is the selection of good quality post larvae (PL) and their subsequent stocking in ponds. Failure to achieve good post-stocking survival of your post larvae can reduce your harvest potential form the start of the crop, thereby reducing profitability. If post-stocking survival is low one may be forced to decide whether to restock (if additional post larvae are in fact available) or continue with a sub- optimal stocking. The decision is made more difficult by the fact that by this time in the year the growing season is usually well advanced, and, as many farmers have found from bitter experience, shorter grow-out time resulting from late season stocking typically results in smaller shrimp at harvest. The first step towards optimizing stocking success is selection of high quality post larvae.

Shrimp culture as an industry has been contributing significantly to the export earning, employment generation, poverty alleviation and to the economic development of India in recent years. India’s vast coastal belt and condu- cive environment has led to the rapid expansion of shrimp farming activities. Culture practices are gradually be- ing intensified but also vary with the investment capabilities of the entre- preneur. Since shrimp larval quality plays a key factor in influencing the successful shrimp culture, farmers and PL producers need a rapid and simple technique to evaluate postlarvae health quality with respect to future growth and survival. Characterizing good PL quality can benefit shrimp farmers by increasing crop profits and help hatch- ery managers to identify and assess the effects of factors affecting PL quality. In recent years, shrimp health man- agement has become the main focus of improving production and minimizing infectious diseases in shrimp ponds for smooth development of aquaculture industry. To accomplish this goal, one should be concerned with the quality of postlarvae especially the selection of high-health postlarvae shrimp.

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Post Larvae selection in important as it will determine the performance and production of the ponds. The objective of larvae selection is to obtain best survival and growth in the pond. As a guide, obtain post larvae from hatcheries which have produced good shrimp in the past or has good reputation. There are several characteristics of good quality post larvae, and visual observation can be used in identifying good quality or healthy post-larvae for stocking. Given below is a guide on how to indentify good healthy post larvae.

Key Instructions for Seed Selection & Stocking

• Avoid wild seed and seed form poorly managed commercial nurseries. It has high chances of importing disease. Stock same batch of seed. Avoid different batches of seed form different batches of seed from different hatcheries. Stock the shrimp seed only one time per crop. Do not continuously stock with new batches of seed.

• Place some PL (about 100 pcs) in a basin stir the water and check.
Healthy PL will swim against the current. Weak PL will gather at the center.

• Select a good registered hatchery to procure specific pathogen-free (SPF) post larvae that. Hatcheries should be designed (or modified, in the case of existing hatcheries) to ensure good bio-security. A well designed shrimp hatchery consists of separate facilities for quarantine, maturation spawning, hatching, and larval and PL rearing, indoor and outdoor algal culture, hatching of Artemia and feed preparation. Hatcheries should have bio-security system to prevent introduction of disease. Single brooder spawning must be followed. Where only one animal is kept in a spawning tank for spawning. This helps in reducing disease contamination. Hatcheries should maintain management records. Farmers should check the previous screening records of gravid shrimp for MBV and WSSV. Hatcheries should not use banned chemicals/ antibiotics. Each hatchery should have its own set of Standard Operating Procedures. Hatchery should allow access to farmer representatives at any time to observe the tanks. Hatchery should provide proper invoice/ certificate for purchase of seed. Farmer should be given a choice to reject the seed (If poor quality) till the time of packing.

• Good and healthy shrimp Larvae should be even in size. PL 10 should have a total length of 10 mm. the 3 stage form one spine so pl 10 having 3 t0 4 spine this is main character of larval age finding. Uneven size may be due to: a) Different Stage b) Under feeding c) Disease d) Poor water quality e) Over-aged Post-Larvae.

• Test the gravid for disease. Individual brooders must be transported in special brood stock transportation bags filled with oxygen, sealed and placed on ice within insulated foam boxes to maintain temperature of and less than 29 degree. Farmers must ensure the same during visit to the hatchery. Brood stock must be screened for MBV before keeping the animal for spawning. Brood stock must be screened after spawning for WSSV by collecting pleopods along with scum in disposable ampoules for PCR testing in labs that have successfully completed the ring test ( Get the at least list of successful PCR labs from NaCSA/MPEDA). Only the eggs/Nauplii tested negative for WSSV and MBV, must be used for further production of PL. Positives should be discarded after disinfection.

• Select Healthy shrimp seed. Observe the PL in a bowl by taking samples from different locations in the PL tank. Switch off the aeration briefly in the tank while taking samples. Tanks having dead pieces or showing reddish coloration should be rejected, PL tanks having good survival indicates good health of the stock. Prefer PL 15-16 stage (Total body length should be >12mm). Smaller sizes may not be ready for stocking and may not survive in the pond.

• Shrimp seed should be uniform in size and dark or light brown in colour. Seed with red, blue or green colour must be rejected. Shrimp seed should be strong and active. Collect about 500PL from the bottom of the tank pour in a round tub. Stir the water. Wait for 1-2 minutes. If many seed concentrate in the centre then do not select that seed batch. Shrimp seed should pass a salinity stress test. Collect about 100PL in a glass with tank water with ambient salinity (28 to 32ppt), and pour equal quantity of fresh water. Wait for 30min. If 100% of the seed survives, then select the seed batch. Shrimp seed should pass a formalin stress test. Collect about 100PL in a glass containing 100ppm formalin (0.25 ml of commercial formalin/L). Wait for 1hr. If more that 9% the seed survives, then select the seed batch. Select the seed batch which passes the above stress test for PCR test. Also test the PL for presence of antibiotic residues.

• Test the seed for disease and healthiness. Shrimp seed may have pathogens like WSSV. Viral related disease can cause mass mortality of shrimp in ponds. The unhealthy seed will result in poor survival and growth in ponds. Collect and pack about 500PL in a seed bag and send to a shrimp diagnostic laboratory which successfully completed ring test for disease testing. The result should be negative for MBV/HPV by wet mount and WSSV by PCR test. Take only batches which test negative for both MBV and WSSV.

• Pigmentation : (a) Shape Finger like – healthy Round Shape – unhealthy (b) Color Rust like brown / gray / dark gray – healthy Yellow – average Blue – unhealthy

• During seed packing and transportation do not mix the seed batches from different PL tanks of a hatchery or from different hatcheries. The salinity of PL tank water and pond water should be the same and should not differ by more 2 ppt. Prior to packing the seed, adjust the salinity of the PL tank water to the salinity of pond water. Start adjusting the salinity in hatchery at PL-5 stage and complete the process of adjusting at least one day prior to seed packing. Seed bags should have minimum 5L water and enough oxygen (water: oxygen =1:3). Do not pack more than 1000 PL per bag. Add Artemia in the seed bag to prevent cannibalism. Seed bags should be transported in thermo coal box or plastic tubs. Mark the seed bags/ boxes form different larval tanks. Transport time form hatchery to ponds should be less than 6 hours. If transportation time is longer, slightly reduce the temperature by placing ice bags in between two polythene layers of seed bag. Transport during cool hours (7pm- 7am).
Transport of the post larvae should be done in the early morning in order to avoid the heat. Upon reaching the grow-out pond, post larvae should be counted, checked for vigor, acclimatized and evenly distributed over the pond area. The most common method of transportation is by placing the post larvae in plastic bags filled with 1/3 of water and filling the other 2/3 with oxygen before sealing them. The packing density will depend on the age of post larvae and the expected transportation time. As a guide, the following are recommended for transportation time of less than 6 hours: PL 9 – 1500 to 2500 PL/3liter PL 10 –1000 to 2000 PL3/liter In situations where the transportation time is longer, these plastic bags can be placed into polystyrene boxes and cooled to around 20°C by placing small bags to the box. In case where transport tie exceeds 4 hours, live food should be added into the transport bags.

• Full gut indicates good health, empty gut indicates possible stress problem

• Molting problem, indicative of nutritional disorders related to sterol, phospholipids or calcium or phosphorous

• Muscle development: The ratio of width of gut and body depth below the gut at the 6th segment, healthy PL should be 1:4 or > 4

• External features: For a healthy PL, the antennal scales of head portion are Closed together whereas the tail fan (uropod) is widely opened. Closed uropods are indicative of young fry not yet suitable for stocking (less than PL 8)

• Seed should be stocked in pond during cool hours of the day i.e. after 8pm and before 8am. Make sure that plankton bloom is good and stable. Avoid stocking if pond has transparent water or dark green water. Allow to acclimatize the seed or temperature to pond. Take the disinfected 500L flat bottom, round tank and fill it with pond water up 50%. Oxygenate the water using oxygen cylinder. Open the seed bags & release the seed into the tank. Treat the PL with 100ppm formalin for 15minutes. If moulting is observed or the seed transportation period is more than 6hrs do not treat with formalin. After treatment, stir the water to create a swirl. All the dead and weak PL concentrate at the bottom-centre of the tank. Siphon off dead and weak PL using 1 inch flexi hose. Do not release seeds where water is turbid or shallow. Keep 100 PL in two small hapas and check the survival after 48 hrs. If the average survival is less than 70%, one may have to plan for restocking.

Conclusion

Stocking postlarvae of the highest quality possible, healthy and free of pathogens, is critical to the success of any shrimp farm. There are a number of well-established criteria that are used to assess PL quality, including its origin and hatchery reputation, visual evaluation, stress tests and various tests to detect the presence of pathogens. The transition from hatchery conditions to those prevailing in open grow-out systems such as tanks and ponds, where water conditions can continually or unpredictably change (day/night, dry/rainy seasons over the production cycle) can be a traumatic experience for PLs unless the transition is gradual and stress is minimized by following proper acclimation procedures. Strict use of PL quality assessment criteria in the evaluation and selection of PLs for stocking, and a careful acclimation procedure using the best quality seedstock available will be invaluable and will have a significant effect on the production and profitability of any shrimp farm, and should be standard procedures.

1 comment
  • Sommer Christian fev 14, 2018 at 12:48 pm

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc quam justo, ullamcorper tincidunt pellentesque in, condimentum ut enim. Aenean at pharetra diam, quis vulputate urna.

    Reply

For Fish & Shrimp Farming Technical Advice

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a part of Labalaya Biotech Pvt Ltd.,

23 Main Street, Opp. Geetha Multiplex, Undi Road, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh-INDIA

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